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Implementation science: research projects
Girgis A, Delaney GP, Arnold A, Miller AA, Levesque JV, Kaadan N, Carolan MG, Cook N, Masters K, Tran TT, Sandell T, Durcinoska I, Gerges M, Avery S, Ng W, Della-Fiorentina S, Dhillon HM, Maher A. (2016) Development and Feasibility Testing of PROMPT-Care, an eHealth System for Collection and Use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Personalized Treatment and Care: A Study Protocol
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have been used widely to screen for depression, anxiety, and symptoms in cancer patients. Computer-based applications that collect patients’ responses and transfer them to the treating health professional in real time have the potential to improve patient well-being and cancer outcomes.
This study will test the feasibility and acceptability of a newly developed eHealth system which facilitates PRO data capture from cancer patients, data linkage and retrieval to support clinical decisions and patient self-management, and data retrieval to support ongoing evaluation and innovative research.
Lambert, S., Girgis, A., Descallar, J., Levesque J.V., Jones, B., S. (2016)
Trajectories of mental and physical functioning among spouse caregivers of cancer survivors over the first five years following the diagnosis.
This study looks to identify the trajectories of physical and mental functioning among spouse caregivers of patients with cancer over the first five years post-diagnosis and variables associated with low or deteriorating functioning.
Twyman L, Bonevski B, Paul C, Bryant J. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: A systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature. BMJ Open, 2014, 4:12
This study provides a valuable synthesis of the literature examining the perceived barriers to smoking cessation common and unique across six vulnerable groups, allowing for the identification of common barriers that are modifiable through short term public health behaviour change strategies.
Tzelepis F, Rose SK, Sanson-Fisher RW, Clinton-McHarg T, Carey ML, Paul CL. Are we missing the Institute of Medicine's mark? A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures assessing quality of patient-centred cancer care. BMC Cancer, 2014;14.41
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has endorsed six dimensions of patient-centredness as crucial to providing quality healthcare. This systematic review examined whether patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) designed to assess the quality of patient-centred cancer care addressed all six IOM dimensions of patient-centred care and the psychometric properties of these measures.
Clinton-McHarg T, Paul C, Boyes A, Rose S, Vallentine P, O’Brien L. Do cancer helplines deliver benefits to people affected by cancer? A systematic review. Patient Education and Counseling, 2014;97:3 302-304
This systematic review was conducted to explore the benefits of cancer helplines identified in previous studies and the methodological quality of such studies. With an increased emphasis on delivering best-practice supportive care, a need for more rigorous intervention-focussed studies has been identified given the lack of robust evidence on the level and types of benefits that cancer helplines may provide.
Paul CL, Yoong S, Sanson-Fisher R, Carey M, Russell G, Makeham M. Under the radar: A cross-sectional study of the challenge of identifying alcohol consumption above recommended levels in the primary care setting. BMC Family Practice, 2014;15:74
Primary care providers are an important source of information regarding appropriate alcohol consumption. As early presentation to a provider for alcohol-related concerns is unlikely, it is important that providers are able to identify at-risk patients in order to provide appropriate advice. This study aimed to report the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of General Practitioner (GP) assessment of alcohol consumption compared to patient self-report, and explore characteristics associated with GP non-detection of at-risk status.
Fradgley EA, Paul CL, Bryant J, Roos IAG, Henskens FA, Paul D. Consumer participation in quality improvements for chronic disease care: Development and evaluation of an interactive patient-centered survey to identify preferred service initiatives. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 2014; 16:12
This study explores the acceptability of a web-based survey to empower consumers to participate in improving quality of care, and enable health services to systematically introduce patient-centered initiatives.
Paul CL, Sanson-Fisher RW, Carey M. Measuring psychosocial outcomes: Is the consumer or the professional the best judge? European Journal of Cancer Care, 2013;22:281-288
This review explores the professionally-driven and consumer driven paradigms in measuring psychosocial outcomes for cancer care, clarifying the distinction between the two approaches and providing a discussion on the necessity to include both perspectives in research and practice.
Barnet, M., & Shaw, T. (2013). What do consumers see as important in the continuity of their care?. Supportive Care in Cancer, 21(9), 2637-2642.
This paper reviews the literature pertaining to continuity of care in cancer treatment, with focus on consumer opinion pieces, and discuss
es how this may inform the planning of services. The literature is supplemented with qualitative data derived from original interviews with consumers and health-care professionals involved in cancer care in New South Wales and Victoria.
Paul C, McLennan J, Baxendale A, Schnelle Birgit, Rawson J, Turon H, Tzelepis F. Implementation of a personalised workplace smoking cessation program. Occupational Medicine 2013, 63(8):568-574.
Despite research showing the success of delivering evidence-based tobacco cessation interventions in the workplace, achieving long-term success remains challenging. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a workplace-based tailored smoking cessation programme that combined telephone-based counselling with group behaviour therapy sessions in helping employees to quit.
Tzelepis F, Paul CL, Walsh RA, Knight J, Wiggers J. Who enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of quitline support? Comparison of participants versus non-participants. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2013; 15(12): 2107-2113.
Understanding the characteristics of smokers who enroll in a trial of quitline support and those who decline could guide recruitment approaches and service delivery to better engage smokers and increase successful quitting. This research compares sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, perceived effectiveness of using quitting aids, and self-exempting beliefs of participants and nonparticipants who were actively telephoned and offered quitline support as part of a randomized controlled trial.
Shaw, T.J., Pernar, L.I.M., Peyre, S.E., Helfrick, J.F., Vogelgesang, K., Graydon-Baker, E., Chretien, Y., Brown, E.J,, Nicholson, J., Heit, J.J., Co, J.P., & Gandhi, T.K. (2012) Impact of online education on intern behaviour around Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals: A randomised trial. BMJ Qual Safety 21:819-825.
This randomised controlled trial found that Spaced Education as an online learning tool was superior to more traditional online learning methodologies. This study was conducted in 2010 at Massachusetts General Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) in Boston USA to compare the effectiveness of two types of online learning methodologies for improving the patient-safety behaviours mandated in the Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG).
Implementation science: research frameworks, methodology and strategies
Byron J Powell, Thomas J Waltz, Matthew J Chinman, Laura J Damschroder Jeffrey L Smith, Monica M Matthieu, Enola K Proctor and JoAnn E Kirchner.
A refined compilation of implementation strategies: results from the Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) project:
Implementation Science 2015, 10:21.
Identifying, developing, and testing implementation strategies are important goals of implementation science. However, these efforts have been complicated by the use of inconsistent language and inadequate descriptions of implementation strategies in the literature. The Expert Recommendations for Implementing Change (ERIC) study aimed to refine a published compilation of implementation strategy terms and definitions by systematically gathering input from a wide range of stakeholders with expertise in implementation science and clinical practice.
Per Nilsen Debate: Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks.
:53 21st April 2015.
The aim of this article is to propose a taxonomy that distinguishes between different categories of theories, models and frameworks in implementation science, to facilitate appropriate selection and application of relevant approaches in implementation research and practice and to foster cross-disciplinary dialogue among implementation researchers.
Margareth Crisóstomo Portela
Peter J Pronovost
. How to study improvement interventions: a brief overview of possible study types. BMJ Quality & Safety Online First, 25 March 2015.
Improvement (defined broadly as purposive efforts to secure positive change) has become an increasingly important activity and field of inquiry within healthcare. This article offers an overview of possible methods for the study of improvement interventions. The choice of available designs is wide, but debates continue about how far improvement efforts can be simultaneously practical (aimed at producing change) and scientific (aimed at producing new knowledge), and whether the distinction between the practical and the scientific is a real and useful one.
, D’Este C, Carey M, Paul C. Evaluation of public health interventions: Alternative designs to individual randomised controlled trials Ann R Public Health (2014) 35 (invited paper)
The need to provide sound evidence of the costs and benefits of real-world public health interventions has driven advances in the development and analysis of designs other than the controlled trial in which individuals are randomized to an experimental condition. This publication explores a range of alternatives to the individual randomized controlled trial (RCT) including the cluster RCT, stepped wedge design, interrupted time series, multiple baseline, and controlled prepost designs.
Bryant J, Boyes A, Jones K, Sanson-Fisher R, Carey M, Fry R. Examining and addressing evidence-practice gaps in cancer care: a systematic review.
, 2014; 9:37.
There is increasing recognition of gaps between best scientific evidence and clinical practice. This systematic review aimed to assess the volume and scope of peer-reviewed cancer research output in the years 2000, 2005, and 2010.
Bryant J, Passey ME, Hall AE, Sanson-Fisher RW.
A systematic review of the quality of reporting in published smoking cessation trials for pregnant women: An explanation for the evidence-practice gap?
Implementation Science, 2014, 9:14.
To facilitate translation of evidence into clinical practice, it is critical that clear, specific, and detailed information about interventions is provided in publications to promote replication, appropriate aggregation in meta-analysis, and implementation. This study examined whether twenty elements of interventions deemed essential for such translational application were reported in sufficient detail in smoking cessation trials with pregnant women.
Johan L Severens
Economic evaluation of implementation strategies in health care
Economic evaluations can inform decisions about the efficiency and allocation of resources to implementation strategies—strategies explicitly designed to inform care providers and patients about the best available research evidence and to enhance its use in their practices.
This editorial addresses the importance of economic evaluation in the context of implementation science—particularly, how these analyses can be most efficiently incorporated into decision-making processes about implementation strategies.
Russell E. Glasgow, Cynthia Vinson, David Chambers, Muin J. Khoury, Robert M. Kaplan, and Christine Hunter. National Institutes of Health Approaches to Dissemination and Implementation Science: Current and Future Directions. American Journal of Public Health: July 2012, Vol. 102, No. 7, pp. 1274-1281.
To address the vast gap between current knowledge and practice in the area of dissemination and implementation research, we address terminology, provide examples of successful applications of this research, discuss key sources of support, and highlight directions and opportunities for future advances.
Laura J Damschroder, David C Aron, Rosalind E Keith, Susan R Kirsh, Jeffery A Alexander and Julie C Lowery. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science:
Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. This journal describes the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR) that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts.
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This initiative is funded by the Cancer Institute NSW
Community of Practice
Journal Club Podcasts
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